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쁎䡎⽦ὗ굥㩎쁎䡎膉鹛䲈

发布时间 2019-10-17 01:50:08 阅读数: 7 作者:

刘裕实行土断法,

与南方土著同等待遇,

其旨意,

什么是土断,为什么要实行土断?四一三年,令北方流亡来的士民,就所居地作为土著,南朝时重要措施之一,历史由来两晋;即以土著为断。将人户著之于籍。指以现居地为准,西晋武帝太康。

各由乡论,

汝南王司马亮,司空卫瓘上疏;方法因时而有差异。使举善进才,咸用土断,以纠九品中正制之流弊,是为土断之始,西晋时已出现土断概念,晋初司空卫瓘主张恢复汉代乡举里选法,户籍都按住地编定。取消客籍户。选举由乡里。

南朝的土断则是针对当时侨人和侨州郡而实行的政策。

政府设立了许多侨州,

他们只在这种侨立的地方机构登记。

这是针对九品中正制的弊病提出的,西晋末。北方人民大量南流,东晋建立后,侨县予以安置;称为侨人。侨人的户籍称为白籍。不算正式户籍;入白籍者不负担国家。

西至淮畔,

却不住在侨县寄治的地方,

侨州和它所属的郡县也不是都在一处;

侨人有的相对集中。十家五落。各自星处。有的居住分散。一县之民,散在州境,东届海隅,他们虽在侨县登记户籍,有的相距很远,管理极为不便,县开始也只是办事机构。并无。

所以仅在晋陵一郡就有侨立的徐,并六州的十多个郡级和六十多个县级机构。各州侨人既和原来的江南土著百姓杂处,又彼此相互混居,却分属于不同的州,流民南下。

并无产业,

多数还想重返故里,所以莫不各树邦邑,思复旧井。而且流人初到,为了安抚他们。凭借他们的武力为北伐资本;也不能不给以优复。

重返绝望;

成为自耕农民,

容易引起侨旧矛盾。

但北伐多次失败。居处既久。人安其业,侨人中的上层已多占有田园别墅;下层的除了沦为部曲。奴婢者外。也通过开荒或其他手段取得少量土地,他们与土著百姓生活无异而负担不同,而且许多江南农民也逃亡而变成豪强私附,这些都不利于东晋政府的统治。因此东晋政权在江南站稳脚跟。

居民不分侨旧,

便要实行土断政策,中心内容土断政策的中心内容是整理户籍;取消对侨人的优待,一律在所居郡县编入正式户籍。为了编定统一户籍。以便政府统一对编户齐民的剥削,必须划定郡县疆界,取消一些流寓。

同时从南方旧郡县的领土中分割出一部分作为保留的侨郡县的实土,又调整其隶属关系。或把新获实土的侨郡县交旧州郡领导,或把旧郡县割归新立的侨州郡管辖,使州郡与所属郡县不至于相互隔越;与此同时。把逃亡农民和由豪强隐占的私属搜括出来,清查隐匿漏户,充作政府的赋役对象,这也是土断的重要。

东晋的第一次土断是在成帝的咸和年间,

而在南朝后期更为侧重?以后东晋及宋。陈历代都进行过土断,见于记载者共有十次。其中最著名的哀帝兴宁二年由桓温主持的庚戌土断和安帝义熙八年至九年由刘裕主持的义熙土断。庚戌土断时,都以严格执行见称;义熙土断时,晋宗室彭城王司马玄因藏匿五户被下狱治罪。会稽大族虞亮因藏匿亡命千余人被。

财阜国丰。

土断意义,土断结果使政府增加了收入和兵源,侨人则加入了负担调役的行列,从此由北人变成了南人;客观上加速了南北人民的融合。由于每次土断都不能彻底,遗留下一批没有著籍的侨人,新的侨人和侨郡县不断出现,又由于北方流人不断:

县管理,

所以土断政策继续推行,贯串整个。

上一篇:宋朝 下一篇:什么是土断为什么要实行

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