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发布时间 2019-08-27 01:46:16 阅读数: 2 作者:

17世纪,

各国之间的贸易往来日益增多;

称霸海洋,

欧洲的资本主义经济得到较大的发展。哪个国家的造船工业发达,世界各国间的贸易通道主要在海上。拥有商船的数量和吨位最多。它就能控制东西方贸易,从事海外殖民。

船就是海上的马车,

船在当时就象陆路运输的马车一样,哪个国家掌握了海上的马车。它就是海上的马车夫,在整个17世纪。荷兰是世界上最强大的海上。

它包括今天的荷兰,

西班牙国王查理一世把它看作是自己王冠上的一颗珍珠,

被称为海上马车夫;在17世纪之前。是西班牙属地尼德兰的一个省。尼德兰意为低地,是莱茵河入海处一大片低地的总称,比利时;卢森堡和法国东北部的一部分,尼德兰是个富饶的地区,当年西班牙帝国的一半税收来自这里,16世。

尼德兰普遍兴起了反对西班牙统治的政治运动和武装起义。1581年尼德兰北方七省成立联省共。

其中以荷兰省最大。所以又称荷兰共和国。荷兰独立后,大力发展资本主义工商业,金融业非常发达!海洋运输业,很快成为西欧强国。荷兰的造船业居世界首位,仅在首都阿姆斯特丹就有上百家造船厂,全国可以同时开工建造几百。

船的造价比英国低1B3到欧洲许多国家都到荷兰订购船只,

荷兰的造船技术是世界上最先进的,荷兰的商船吨位占当时欧洲总吨位的3B4。几乎垄断了海上贸易,拥有1.5万艘商船。挪威的木材,丹麦的鱼类,波兰的粮食,俄国的毛皮,东南亚的香料;中国的丝绸和瓷器。

印度的棉纺织品,大都由荷兰商船转运,当时的阿姆斯特丹是国际贸易的中心,经荷兰商人转手销售,港内经常有2000多艘商船停泊,荷兰的海军舰只几乎超过了英法两国海军的1倍,它们在世界各大洋游弋,保护本国。

并从事海外殖民掠夺,

在亚洲。

荷兰舰队便在爪哇和马六甲海峡两次打败葡萄牙舰队,

1602年。

并在北美侵占了一块殖民地,

1595年荷兰人首次绕过好望角!到达印度,并且不断追捕,抢劫中国商船,垄断了东方贸易;荷兰成立东印度公司,专门控制这一地区的贸易,还一度侵占我国的澎湖,在美洲,荷兰于1621年成立西印度公司。把持西北非洲与美洲之间的贸易。建立了以新阿姆斯特丹为中心的新。

在非洲;荷兰在东西方交通的咽喉,南非的好望角!修筑要塞,营建殖民地,在那里开辟种植园,保证过往船只的淡水。粮食的供应,海上马车夫这个绰号形象说明了17世纪的荷兰在商业;由此可见,海洋和殖民掠夺各方面所拥有的霸权;从17世纪。

英荷便在各大海洋展开了海上争霸战,

海上马车夫的好景不长!法荷战争席卷了荷兰本土,最终以荷兰的惨败而告终,荷兰从此一蹶。

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